A variety of vocabulary in the languages ​​of Aboriginal Australia

12 Апрель, 2010

  

Разнообразие лексики в языках аборигенов АвстралииMost Australian languages ​​have a material and typological proximity at all levels of linguistic structure, with some variety of vocabulary. In Australian languages, Usually, no fricatives, No opposition to the Deaf- voiced; subsystems and explosive nose to have 6 members (билабиальный, interdental,apical, ретрофлексный, палатальный, velar); there is 4 lateral, vybranty 3 glide (билабиальный, ретрофлексный, палатальнcacuminbilabial

In a number of Australian languages (Central and South Australia, Southwest Квинсленд) number of series of explosive increases to 4 (strong, weak, labializovannыe, lateralized); in some languages, there are abruptivy Arnhem Land. In some languages the number of explosive and nasal phonemes is reduced at the expense of the interdental spaces, rarer palatals. In the n-VA Cape York(the family of PAMA-njunga) No retrofleksnyh, in those same languages have fricatives.

In Australian languages common 3 vowel phonemes (i), a, u, largest variety differs in some languages vokalizm n-VA Cape York. Syllable structure of most Australian languages CV((C)), combination of consonants are rare. Acute accent, Usually,on the first syllable.

All Australian languages – agglutinative, in the languages of the PAMA families-njunga, Ding Wambach,the Caravan and in language there are only suffixes minkin, in the remaining – as suffixes, and prefixes. Subject-object indicators in a number of languages are attached not to the unsolved questions, and the especial particle – «catalyst» or the first word in a sentence, e.g.. ngadju-lu-lu ka-na-nja nggu-nja ‘I see you ', gdeka – ergative catalyst (language valbiri South-West PAMA group-njunga). The verb usually distinguishes 2-3 time, in some languages, it is necessary to specify the exact at the time of the day, in which the action takes place. Time category may have personal pronouns. The number of nouns is usually nevyrazhaetsja, personal pronouns have contrasted to 4 numbers. system of Demonstrative Pronouns complex. The number of non-derivative of numerals is small (usually 3-4).

In the system of grammatical categories reflect the specificities of the social structure of Australians. So, lardil language (Tanga group PAMA-njunga)not singular pronouns have two forms: one – for persons, chetnyhpo relation to the speaker generations, another – odd, e.g.. 1 l. DV. H. eksklyuzivnjari ‘мы с ним (brother, grandfather, grandchildren, etc.)’ и Nja:or ‘мы сwe hadr, son,great-grandfather, etc.)’.

  

  


Word order is usually free, but dominant SOV. Most Australian languages – ergative, refer only to the nominative languages ​​groups thong (Gulf of Carpentaria) and ngayarda (Western Australia) Pama-family nyunga.

Most of prefigiruyuschih (more precisely, prefigiruyusche-suffigiruyuschih) and a number of geographically disparate groups suffigiruyuschih Australian languages ​​have soglasovatelnyeklassy: jangani-n HSI:g'i nawara-li-n-n-n nare marangi:unto n-amangi (n – классныйпоказатель) – ‘Who is this great man, I can see that?’ (Language gidya semideraga). In many Australian languages ​​is possible incorporation of the object, often suppletive form: ngiri-pungita wuri-ni- ‘I cut (It) ear '; svobodnayaforma words ‘ear’ crane (Tiwi language).

 

 

 

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