Coal deposits near the Newcastle operated with 1800, and coal was one of the first items of Australian exports. Anthracite coal, and rare poluantratsitnye, but other types of coal reserves are large.
The main deposits of bituminous (coking and steam) carbons are in the Bowen Basin (in Квинсленде) and Sydney (in New South Wales); Some layers reach a power 18 m and can be developed by open (particularly in the Bowen Basin).
It is these coals, in particular fields of Queensland, located near Collinsville, Moura, Blair-atolls and Bridžuotera, revived the coal industry in Australia.
Japan, major importer of Australian coal, actively investing coal mining in the Bowen Basin, where there were several new mines. In 1995-1996 was produced in Australia 194 млн. т каменного угля (about half of Queensland and the same in New South Wales), exported 140 млн. т угля (43% to Japan, 13% to Korea 7% Taiwan). Currently, Australia - themillionngtons of coalf coal to the world market.
Coking coal for the steel industry is mined from deposits near Newcastle and Wollongong. Sub-bituminous coals are developed in the areas of Ipswich in Queensland and Kallayd, Lee Creek South Australia and in Fingal Tasmania. The main field Western Australia Collie is in 320 km south of Perth.
In the Latrobe Valley in Victoria, operated by large deposits of brown coal: Three main reservoir there developed a highly mechanized open cast; most of the coal used in the local thermal power plants to supply the southern Victoria. Other deposits of brown coal is west Melbourne - In Anglesey Bakkus Marche. Discovery of large deposits of brown coal Kingston to the south-east of South Australia, Esperance in Western Australia and Tasmania Rozveyl.
As the coal industry is of critical economic importance, including the production of electricity, export organization and problem-solving employment, Australia long opposed the implementation of the UN resolution, adopted by the Conference on Climate Change in Kyoto in December 1997. Eventually she agreed to significantly reduce 2010 carbon emissions.