The Australian Constitution and an independent class of farmers

12 Февраль, 2010


Convinced, that a more liberal constitution is successfully operating in Canada, English Parliament in the 1850 Bill released to the Australian colonies; Colonial authorities were allowed with the consent of the British government to work out for itself a new constitution.

To 1856 worked out the constitution New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia. The new bicameral legislatures of the colonies have the right to the royal lands, and could form a government modeled on the British and Canadian.

Квинсленд, open to free settlement after the termination of deportation of convicts to New South Wales 1840, was organized as a separate colony in 1859. Western Australia, Founded in 1829 and rarely populated, did not have a representative bodies until 1870 and had no government to 1890.

The Constitutions declare the principle of universal suffrage for men in the elections to the lower chambers of the colonial parliaments. For women this right was granted after: in South Australia 1894, in Western Australia 1899, in New South Wales 1902, in Tasmania in 1903, in Queensland in 1905 and in Victoria 1908. Voting by secret ballot was introduced in Victoria as early as 1856.



Government of the colonies wanted to create an independent class of farmers and, despite the opposition of cattlemen (ranchers), adopted a number of laws, contributed to the development of arable land, that should not have been used for grazing. However, ranchers, obtaining loans from financial institutions, bought land for himself through nominees, and gradually became the formal owner of vast land.

Although the land laws encouraged the development of TN. mixed farming, based on various combinations of cultivation of cereal, milk and meat production, sheep remained the leading sector, focused on the production of wool. For example, in 1887 in New South Wales over 3,2 Million. hectares of land owned by all 96 sheep farms.

In the last quarter 19 in. pastoralists are faced with economic difficulties. World prices for wool began to decline, as overgrazing and lack of moisture contributed to the development of dust storms. Between 1891-1901, millions of hectares of land have been abandoned, and the number of sheep decreased by 33%. Potential kormoemkost land also declined due to increased population of rabbits. Derivation of the improved hybrid breeds of sheep, the use of mechanized cutting and erection of barbed wire fences - all failed to solve the problems pastoralists.

Meanwhile, the position of farmers improved through the use of new agricultural machinery and fertilizers, introduction of improved varieties of wheat, providing loans to rural areas and the laying of railways in agricultural areas. On the coast of Queensland sugar cane farming has attracted settlers and investment.




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