Development of Australia

13 Февраль, 2010



The development of Australian English began mainly after the termination of the expulsion of convicts in the English colonies in North America. This punishment was practiced in the British penal system, until the War of Independence United States.

The search for other places of detention were not successful, a contingent of prisoners, which was kept on barges, moored to the banks of the Thames, steadily increased. In these circumstances the British government approved a plan to send convicts to Botany Bay in New South Wales.

First Flotilla under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip sailed from England in May 1787 and arrived in Botany Bay in January 1788. Phillip did not like this place, and he soon found a little farther to the north of the harbor another. The landing was carried out in the bay area in Sydney, known as Port Jackson, and there started work on clearing the area and the construction of houses.

The main problems, facing the colony of New South Wales, is to ensure adequate food, prisoners and development of their living conditions after the sentence. Provision of food to meet the needs of the colony gained urgency early settlement. The colonists did not want or could not perceive the experience of Indigenous Australians, way of life is, associated with hunting and gathering, was broadly consistent with local conditions. It was later revealed, that, while in the vicinity of Port Jackson were not fertile soil, in places, remote from the coast, you can grow good crops.

Meanwhile, the flow of prisoners in New South Wales was under way until 1840, in Tasmania - To 1852 and Western Australia - To 1868. Especially many convicts came from 1825 on 1845. Almost all of 160 тыс. arrivals were ordinary criminals, but about 1 тыс. British and 5 тыс. Irish could be considered political prisoners. According to the verdict,thousandprisoners were serving sentences in penal colonies or worked on road construction, in chains, but the vast majority was determined to work with voluntary colonists.

As a reward for good behavior, the governor could release the convict from work and had the right to give them a "free", which allowed to work for themselves, are not under the control of foreign. Upon the expiration of the sentence of former prisoners are rarely returned to their homeland. To 1822 they often received small plots of land, and treated them, but often become regular wage workers.

The first English convict settlement (1788) totally dependent on supplies from the UK. However, for a short period in Australia began to develop sheep. It is the foundation of almost all the economy up to the end of the Second World War. For Economic Development of Australia in particular were of great importance in the growth of exports of wool 1820 - 1850-s; discovery of gold deposits in Victoria and the "gold rush" in 1851-1858; introduction of technology in the frozen meat 1879, which allowed Australia to start exporting meat to Britain 1880.



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