The emergence of the Commonwealth

12 February, 2010

  

  

The emergence of the Commonwealth of Australia was the first event of the twentieth century. Decision on its establishment in force 1 January 1901. But it was still not enough time, before the Australian continent have an independent nation and mature industrial society, we see today.

Australia came into the twentieth century. in a state of economic recovery, who succeeded depression, caused by the crisis of sheep. Over 90 doubled crop spare, and although livestock continued to dominate the economy of the country, agriculture has become more diversified.

Australia exported wool, мясо, dairy produce, wheat. But economically Australia was not a single entity - foreign trade (primarily with the United Kingdom) continued to prevail over interstate commerce. The single market has not yet emerged.

В 1901 bitter struggle revolved around the question of a common trade tariffs, without which it could not have created a single market of Australia. A compromise between free-trade and protectionist states with the benefit of protection. В 1909 the federal government has agreed to compensate states losses, arose after the creation of a unified system of tariffs. As a result, the role of the central government has increased, as it Ins to redistribute income across the continent.

Although, that Australia was still a predominantly agrarian society, industry was in 1902 47% production, and manufacturing prevailed over mining. But the industry had mainly semicottage character. This time was favorable for industrial development. For the pre-war years the number of people employed in industry increased by almost two times.

Lifestyle Australians was borrowed from the mother country, extent permitted climate and vast distances, have caused low population density. "The tyranny of distance," led to the territorial fragmentation of Australia, isolated Australians (especially in farms), created an atmosphere of provincialism, even in cities, initially reported the metropolis more intense, than with each other. Provincialism effect on the cultural life of, adopts British-style.

Obscheavstraliyskoe first government led by E.Bartonom was established in September 1900 Australian property interests were represented by liberal elites. Because of the differences between free traders and protectionists, they only 1913 united in the national party. Initially, the Liberals had a majority in parliament.

Shortly after the strikes of the 90s were set up trade unions relied on the regional Labour Party, which 1914 joined the Labor Party of Australia (the date of the party is 1891, when there was a Labour Party of New South Wales).

Labour Representation in Parliament increased, and 1904, during the conflict over the distribution of jurisdiction of arbitration courts in the Labour government employees could dismiss the government A.Dikina. For the first time in the history of the Labour government was headed D.Uotson. His government lasted three months.

 

 

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