South Wales and his administration

13 February, 2010


Arthur Phillip was the first governor of the colony. For health reasons he had to return to England in 1792, and over the next three years, two time Governor, John Hunter and Phillip King Gidle, alternately tried to control the colony with the squad, enrolled in England and known as the Corps Novoyuzhnouelssky.

The successor of the governor was William Bligh, whose name became known in connection with the mutiny on the ship "Bounty". Bligh tried to put in the colony and naval discipline came into conflict with the, who sought to extract personal gain from the existing difficulties in the colony.

Drawing on the rich and influential colonists, Corps Commander Major General George Novoyuzhnouelsskogo Johnston dismissed and arrested Bligh. Johnston was convicted by a military court for taking part in this "rum revolution", and in 1809 Governor was appointed Colonel Lachlan Macquarie.

Along with Macquarie in Australia arrived he headed military unit - the 73rd Regiment of Scotland, and Novoyuzhnouelssky body was returned to England. Macquarie believed, that many of the ex-convicts are better citizens than some witting colonists. He vigorously took up the construction program, significantly updated the look of Sydney, improved the condition of the roads. All of these activities require a lot of resources.

The British government, concerned about costs and inclined to believe, that Macquarie too easy on the detainees, Commissioner John T.Bigge sent to check the state of affairs in the colony. Reports Biggie helped toughen prison discipline and the provision of a free civil rights of the colonists.

Rapid transition to self-government in New South Wales, it was impossible to carry out long, so far remained unresolved contradictions between otbyvshimi term convicts as free settlers. The first sought to obtain the right to participate in government, whereas voluntary colonists were unwilling to provide political privileges of former prisoners. Committee of the British Parliament in 1837-1838 recommended to stop deportation of convicts. In 1840 British government has approved this recommendation in respect of the New South Wales.

Thanks to this opportunity to take another step on the path to self-government of the colony. Legally 1842 New South Wales has been granted the right to elect the Legislative Council of 36 members. Freed convicts were granted the right to vote. But there was a property qualification. The bills could be dismissed governor or forwarded to the British government. It has taken control and sale of land. Continued colonization of other parts of Australia.

Convict colonies were established by the Van Diemen's Land (now o.Tasmaniya). Colony of Western Australia was established in 1826 after landing at Albany on its southern coast, and the colony of Swan River on the west coast near the modern city of Perth - in 1829, although it is not used until, until there began to arrive trial of prisoners in 1850-1868. South Australia was founded not as a convict colony: there with 1836 began to grant voluntary migrants land in accordance with the project of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.

In what is now Victoria in the 1830s began to settle informal settlers, who migrated south from the area of ​​Sydney and north to Van Diemen's Land. Some of them settled near the present Melbourne. Individual settlers migrated well north of Sydney on the territory of modern Queensland, and in 1824 convict settlement was established near Brisbane.



Research Australia

All this time was carried out to study the nature of the mainland Australian. In 1803 Matthew Flinders sailed around its shores, and drew a map of the continent. He proposed to call it "Australia". The establishment of the general configuration of the continent and the threat of occupation by the French ports on the west and the north of England stimulated adherence to Bathurst and Melville islands in 1824, areas between 135 ° and 129 ° E. - In 1825 and the rest of the continent - in 1829.

With 1844 attempts were made to cross the interior of Australia. Captain Charles Sturt had his expedition to arid central part, and Ludwig Laykhart - the bay of Port Essington on the northern coast. Robert Burke and William Wills, Send from Melbourne 1860 and reached the Gulf of Carpentaria in 1861, were the first, who crossed the continent from south to north (they both died on the way back). Mac Duoll Stewart hoisted the flag in the center of Australia 1860 and successfully crossed the continent from Adelaide to Darwin in 1861-1862.

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