Marsupial Mole

4 Февраль, 2011

  

Marsupial Mole (Notoryctes) – kind of marsupial mammals and the only Australian marsupials, leading an underground life appearance. Marsupial moles live in the sandy deserts of central and northern share Zap. Australia, in Northern Areas and the west Ю. Australia, often caught in the middle of sand dunes and river dunes.
The genus of marsupial moles 2 View:

* Notoryctes typhlops.
* Notoryctes caurinus.

they differ only in size and some features of the device body. Despite the fact that, marsupial mole that has been known since ancient times natives, a scientist he was only 1888 Mr., When livestock accidentally found sleeping under a bush animal.

In appearance and lifestyle marsupial mole is very similar to African zlatokrotov (Chrysochloridae), Although not their relative. Their similarity – example of the convergence of the animals, belonging to different taxonomic groups; ordinary moles are absent in Australia, and marsupial moles occupy their ecological niche.
Marsupial moles are well distinguished from other marsupials, that the individual identified in the family. They have a strong body of terete, tail ending in a small conical, from 12 To 26 millimeters. The body length of 15-18 centimeters, and weight – 40-70 Mr.. The neck is short; 5 cervical vertebrae are fused, increasing the stiffness of the neck. The tail is firm to the touch, with circular scales and horny tip. Short five-fingered feet well adapted for digging. Claws are developed unevenly. III, and fourth fingers of the forelimbs are armed with enormous triangular claws; with their help a mole digging the ground. Claws on its hind legs flattened, and the leg is adapted to filter out sand excavated. The coat is dense in marsupial moles, Soft and beautiful. Its color varies from white to pinkish-brown and golden. Gives a reddish tint to her iron, which is rich red Australian desert sand.

The head of a small marsupial moles, конусовидная, on the upper side of the nose is a horny plate solar colors, enabling the mole snout to push the sand, without damaging the skin. Nostrils small, slit-like. Underdeveloped eyes, 1 millimeter in diameter, hidden under the skin; they do not have the lens and the pupil, a rudimentary optic nerve. Although the marsupial mole is very developed lacrimal gland ducts – They irrigate the nasal cavity and prevents contamination of ground. External ears and no, But under the fur is a tiny, about 2 Hearing millimeter holes.

  

  

Brood pouch marsupial moles have small, open back, which prevents the ingress of sand into it. Incomplete septum divides it into 2 pocket; one in each nipple. The males are endowed with rudimentary brood pouch – a small transverse fold of skin on the belly. They do not have the scrotum, testes are located in the abdomen.

On the breeding marsupial moles is almost unknown. Shortly before the offspring, Females dig a burrow quite deep permanent. Tk. sumka nee 2-ma «compartments», She is, likely, bring no more than 2 pups.
Marsupial Mole is mating season does not dig deep burrows. Usually, he seemed «floats» at the surface of sand, at a depth of 8 сантиметров, Sometimes leaving a depth of more than 2,5 Meters; when he pushes the ground head and front paws and throws it back to the hind legs. Tunnel behind the moving mole is not saved, but the sand is formed on the surface of a typical triple-track.

Marsupial mole strange moves with great speed and deftly – dug a mole does not always get to catch. On the nose it is most often corn-zi from the use of head turns in digging.

Marsupial Mole is odd appearance of life; active day and night. Sometimes he was greeted at the surface, especially after rain. It eats, both under the ground, and on the surface. Its staple diet is worms, Insects (Dragonflies, beetles, butterfly-borers) and their larvae, pupae of ants. Marsupial moles are extremely hungry, and a large proportion of their time in search of food.

Life expectancy of the marsupial mole of approximately 1,5 Mr., the number of marsupial moles is unknown. Probably, they suffer from the attacks of feral cats, foxes and dingoes, and the compaction runs after livestock and traffic. In captivity, they do not live long, secretive in nature, For this reason, their biology and ecology studied very poorly.

Phylogenetic relationships of marsupial moles with other marsupials remain unclear. Molecular research, conducted in the 1980s., have shown, that they do not have close ties with other groups of modern marsupials and, clear, became isolated not the least 50 million years ago. Although some morphological evidence of their relationship with the bandicoot.

Fossils of marsupial moles are precursors in the 1985 Mr.. found in limestone deposits in Queensland. They date from the Miocene. Though, reconstructions of climatic background, ancient marsupial moles are not lived in the desert, and in the rain forest belts, swarm moves in the forest litter.

 

 

 

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