In the tropical belt on the Australian continent formed by two main types of climate: tropical wet and tropical dry. The tropical humid climate is typical of extreme eastern part of Australia, which is included in the zone of south-eastern trade winds. These winds bring with them to the mainland with moisture saturated air masses from the Pacific Ocean. Therefore, the entire area of the coastal plains and the eastern slopes of the Great Dividing Range are well hydrated (an average fall of 1000 to 1500 mm of rainfall) and has a mild warm climate (temperature of the warmest month Sydney - 22-25 ° C, and the coldest - 11,5-13 ° C). Air mass, bringing moisture from the Pacific Ocean, penetrate to the Great Dividing Range, lost on the way a significant amount of moisture, therefore, only the rainfall on the western slopes of the ridge and in the foothills.
Australia - the driest continent of the Earth, and one of the most characteristic features of his nature - a wide spread of deserts, which occupy vast stretches of space and nearly 2,5 thousand. miles from the shores of the Indian Ocean to the foothills of the Great Dividing Range.
For the central and western parts of the continent has a tropical desert climate. In the summer of (December-February) average temperature rise is to 30 °C, and sometimes in ° Ce, and in the winter (June-August) reduced to an average of 10-15 °C. ° C
The most hot part of Australia - North West, where Great Sandy Desert the temperature is kept almost the entire summer on the mark 35 И выше ° C.. In winter, it drops slightly (to about 25-20 ° C). In the center of the continent, in the area of the city Alice Springs, during the summer daytime temperature rises to 45 °C, at night it drops to zero and below (-4-6 °C).° C
The central and western parts of Australia, that is, about half of its territory, receive on average 250-300 mm of precipitation per year, a neighborhood Lake Eyre - Less than 200 mm; but these little uneven rainfall. Sometimes for several years did not happen rain, and sometimes two or three days, and even a few hours falls all the annual rainfall. Some of the water percolates quickly and deeply through the permeable soil and becomes unavailable to plants, and some evaporates under the hot sun, and surface layers of soil are almost dry.